Thibault, R. T., Lifshitz, M., & Raz, A. (2017). The Climate of Neurofeedback: Scientific Rigour and the Perils of Ideology. Brain.

In light of the ongoing correspondences concerning EEG-nf in Brain and Lancet Psychiatry, this essay explores the culture behind this contentious therapeutic option and reveals the implications of ideological and financial interests.

Thibault, R. T., Lifshitz, M., & Raz, A. (2017). Neurofeedback or Neuroplacebo? Brain.

In this piece we provide our insights and perspective on EEG-nf in response to a recent study. We summarize the experimental findings and place them within the landscape of neurofeedback and other self-help therapies.


Thibault RT, Raz A. (2017). The psychology of neurofeedback: Clinical intervention even if applied placebo. American Psychologist.

This article contemplates leveraging EEG neurofeedback as an applied placebo treatment. We highlight the psychosocial mechanisms that likely drive neurofeedback outcomes, the specious logic that often prevails in this domain, and the conflicts-of-interest that abound. We also provide point-by-point itemized replies to classic arguments from proponents of EEG neurofeedback.


Thibault RT, Raz A. (2016). Neurofeedback: The power of psychosocial therapeutics. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(11), e18,

A reply to Correspondence concerning our previous Commentary. Here we argue that a period spanning nearly six decades of research has left us mostly empty-handed vis-à-vis the brain-based mechanisms purported to drive EEG neurofeedback outcomes.

Thibault RT & Raz A. (2016). When can neurofeedback join the clinical armamentarium? The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(6), 497-498,

This short piece identifies the three challenges EEG neurofeedback faces on its journey towards standard clinical application.

Thibault RT, Lifshitz M, & Raz A. (2016). The self-regulating brain and neurofeedback: Experimental science and clinical promise. Cortex, 74 , 247-261, doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2015.10.024

This paper describes the state of affairs in the emerging field of fMRI neurofeedback and the nascent fields of MEG and fNIRS neurofeedback. The article provides compelling graphics including a timeline depicting the historical trajectory of neurofeedback, reflections on the intersection of placebo science and neurofeedback, and depictions of current and ideal experimental designs in the field.

Thibault, R.T., Lifshitz, M., Birbaumer, N., & Raz, A. (2015). Neurofeedback, Self-Regulation, and Brain Imaging: Clinical Science and Fad in the Service of Mental Disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84,193-207.

This review offers a thorough introduction to the field of neurofeedback. We compare and contrast imaging modalities used for neurofeedback (EEG, fMRI, fNIRS, MEG) and weigh the advantages of particular experimental designs. We unveil inconsistencies in seminal EEG neurofeedback research and explore the diverse protocols used to train electrical brain signals.